Unknown facts about cigarettes

Year 600-1000 AD - Uaksaktun, Guatemala. The first graphic image smoker. A clay jar, it depicts a Maya Indian, closed smokers of tobacco leaves, converting threads. Smoking sik'ar called Maya Indians.

October 12, 1492 - Christopher Columbus arriving on the shores of San Salvador and sees Aboriginal dried leaves of tobacco.

1492 - Two of the teams Columbus (Rodrigo Jerez and Luis de Torres) become the first Europeans who see smoking tobacco. Jerez became the first European - avid smoker of tobacco.

16 th century: Polynesian found the statue, which depicts the Prince of Flowers, decorated 6 - yu psychoactive plants: mushrooms, tobacco, morning glory (morning glory), and others.

1518 - Juan de Griyalva (Juan de Grijalva) arrives at the Yucatán, and watching as Aboriginal smoking tobacco.

1530 - Franciscan monk Bernardino de Shahagun distinguishes between two kinds of tobacco: "pleasant" - Nicotiana tabacum and "rude" Nicotiana rustica.

1531 - Santo Domingo. It starts with a European tobacco cultivation.

1535 - The first printed reference to smoking tobacco.

1556 - Andre Thevet (Andre Thevet) for the first time brings tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), from Brazil to France, arguing that tobacco is created for a comfortable stay.

1558 - Portugal. The first appearance of tobacco.

1559 - Pillar tobacco - nicotine is named in honor of Jean de Nikota Villemeyna (Jean Nicot) - French Ambassador to Portugal, which describes its medicinal properties and sends it as a panacea to The French court.

1561 - Tobacco, brings to Italy the first Cardinal Prospero di Santa Croce.

1565 - Tobacco Seeds brought to England, but it does not cover smoking.

1570 - Sir Walter Reilly zakurivaet in court. Since then, smoking has become fashionable and popular classes.

1570 - In Europe, the first pictures printed with the image of tobacco. The figures were also depicted smoking pipes like those that saw the Mariners from the Indians.

1571 - The issue of smoking "for fun" was still pending because tobacco believe, first of all, medicinal means. Nicolas Monardes (Nicolas Monardes) devotes the second part of his book "New plants Peace" (New World plants) tobacco, recommending it as a means of unambiguously 36 for the treatment of various diseases. Monardes calls tobacco "holy herb" and his work has become a fundamental source for all subsequent pro-tobacco literature.

1575 - 1600 China / Japan. Smoking tobacco is increasingly found in southern China.

1575 - 1600 England. Smoking becomes the "duty" of every human fashion. Numerous publications praised its medicinal properties.

1575 - 1600 Italy. Tobacco growers of medicinal herbs as in Rome, but there is no evidence of smoking.

1575 - 1600 Turkey. Sultan Murad Second grows tobacco as a new medicine after he saw a British tobacco smoking.

1585 - Tobacco is grown by European settlers in North Carolina.

1586 - Germany. "De plantis epitome utilissima" prints one of the first tobacco warnings, calling tobacco "dangerous plants."

1587 - Antwerp. For the first time published a book entirely devoted to tobacco "De herbe panacea" with a multitude of recipes healing.

1603 - Japan. It starts with the cultivation of tobacco and smoking applies to all classes, in connection with what went several imperial ban on smoking tobacco. Bans issued for security reasons: fires, the foreign influence must be cultivated more valuable type of rice culture. Despite increasing fines, including confiscation of property, death threats, fines and imprisonment, all prohibitions and sanctions fail. Gradually prohibitions disappear because of the impossibility of implementing them.

1617 - Mongolia. Emperor establishes the death penalty for the use of tobacco.

1623 - Italy. Church prohibits smoking in the Holy Places. Pope Urban VIII threatened excommunication from the church to all those who smoke or inhales tobacco in the holy places.

1628 - The State of Virginia gave a monopoly on the export of tobacco to England. 500000 pounds of tobacco were shipped to England.

1634 - Russia. Czar Alexei imposes penalties for smoking. First violation - flogging, nostrils and pulling out a reference to Siberia, the second - the death penalty.

1638 - 1400000 pounds of tobacco, sent from America to England.

1638 - China. Emperor Ming establishes its law that any illegal tobacco trade. The law is not fulfilled, and smoking is distributed. In fall 1641 the second law banning smoking and tobacco trade.

1639 - The Governor Kiefta prohibits smoking tobacco in New Amsterdam (New York). The people ignore its law.

1644 - China. Lifted all existing bans on smoking tobacco. China has become the largest nation of smokers in Asia.

1650 - 1675 Japan. All prohibitions on tobacco smoking altogether.

1659 - Italy. A state monopoly on the sale of tobacco.

1674 - France. Louis XIV establishes a state monopoly on the sale of tobacco, imitating the Italians.

1674 - Russia. Smoking tobacco is prohibited, the punishment - up to the death penalty. Use continues to grow, and the restrictions lifted two years later. Smoking extends from the higher classes to a simple people.

1724 - Pope Benedict XIII tries to smoke and cancels all penalties for smoking.

1730 - opened the first US factory for the processing of tobacco in the state of Virginia. They are a small mill.

1760 - Pierre Lorillard based in New York for the production tube manufacture of tobacco, cigars and snuff tobacco. "P. Lorillard" oldest tobacco company in the United States.

1789-1799 Simple French people consume begins snuff.

1795 - Samuel Thomas Van Semmering of Maine contends that smoking leads to cancer tubes.

1828 - Germany. Students at the University of Heidelberg Rayman and Ludwig Heinrich Wilhelm Posselt write a comprehensive dissertation on pharmacology of nicotine, which confidently assert that it was "dangerous poison."

1843 - In France started commercial production of cigarettes.

1856 - Established the first cigarette factory in England.

1880 - Engineer Bohnsack receives a patent for the world's first cigarette machine.

1881 - began selling handmade cars to Own. Until then, all cigarettes were sold skatany hand.

1883 - Oscar Hammerstein receives a patent for a machine to skrutke cigars.

1889 - Annual number of cigarettes produced in the United States - 2413349000 (2.4 billion).

1889 - "American Tobacco Company" Back led by Duke adds another 5 to be the leading companies.

At the end of 1890 - s in the United States slump cigarette sales since the tax was raised from 0.50 to $ 1.50 per thousand cigarettes, because Government needed additional funds to maintain the Spanish-American War.

1900 - Sales declined from 600 million to 40 million cigarettes over the previous 2 years.

1900 - Washington, Tennessee, Iowa and North Dakota prohibit cigarettes.

1902 - United States. The tax dropped to $ 0.54 per thousand cigarettes, production immediately increased.

1904 - 3 billion cigarettes sold in the United States.

1905 - Tobacco removing from the official list of drugs. This is done in exchange for the tobacco lobby to vote in the voting on the "Food and Drug Act" in 1906. Tobacco automatically falls outside the jurisdiction of Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

1907 - Duke gradually company monopolizes the market tobacco dollars. "American Tobacco Company was divided into several companies under the antitrust laws (Anti-Monopoly).

1912 - 13 billion cigarettes sold.

1918 - Camel Company manages 40% of the American cigarette market.

1940 - Leaders of the American tobacco market (the company): RJ Reynolds, American Tobacco, Liggett & Myers, Brown & Williamson, Philip Morris.

1940 - Leaders of the American tobacco market (s): "Camel" (RJR) - 24%, "Lucky Strike" (ATC) - 22.6%, "Chesterfield Cigarettes" (L & M) - 18%, "Raleigh" (B & W) - 5.1% , "Old Gold" (Lorillard) - 3%, "Pall Mall" (Philip Morris) - 2%, cheaper brand (10 cents per pack of cigarettes) - 12% (all together).

1965 - Congress approves law on the labelling of cigarette packs Health Ministry warnings.

Cigarettes for nonstandard

On one of the oldest brands in the tobacco market - Chesterfield Cigarettes - says Managing Brand Group unit of Russian companies Philip Morris Evgenia Churbanov.
- When a brand Chesterfield Cigarettes?
- Mark Chesterfield Cigarettes has been bred on the American market in 1912. At that time, they were without a cigarette filter. Successfully competing with other popular American brands, until the end of 40 - x Chesterfield Cigarettes was one of the most cigarette brands sold in the United States. But Chesterfield Cigarettes filter appeared on sale only in 1965, when cigarette with a filter already owned more than half the American market.
- When Mark was born in Russia?
- Chesterfield Cigarettes came on the market in our country in the early 90 - ies. Then there was the sale of imported cigarettes. But in autumn 1994 the production of this brand in St. Petersburg. Now all versions of Chesterfield Cigarettes sold in Russia, the factory produces Philip Morris Izhora "in the Leningrad region.
- How positioned mark, and who is the target audience?
- Chesterfield Cigarettes positioned in the middle price ranges as high-quality, a unique brand of cigarettes with a rich and full-bodied taste. This brand especially popular among consumers aged 20-30 years - most of them residents of large cities with middle-income level and above.
Chesterfield Cigarettes target audience - people who approached life in each of its manifestation creatively, think uncommon. They know how to find each habitual action and no sort of feature nuance that gives taste of life and diversity. Waiver of a cliche, generally accepted trends, the desire to set their own rules, a bright personality and innovative approach - all smokers are distinguished from other consumers Chesterfield Cigarettes.
- How would build brand advertising concept development?
- initially supported Chesterfield Cigarettes brand advertising campaign "Chesterfield Cigarettes - American classics, and this is not a coincidence, because this marks a nearly century-old history.
And in 1998, the company began to change the image of brands, adapting it to the increasingly demanding Russian consumer. We have to use the images and unconventional approaches to the selection of advertising.
For example, Chesterfield Cigarettes became, in fact, the first tobacco brand in the Russian market, communication platform which is based on a story not so much about the brand, but the main component of cigarettes - tobacco and its species. The main objective of the ad campaign Chesterfield Cigarettes - shape the image of the international cigarette brand created for true connoisseurs of quality tobacco. Hence our slogan: "A soft golden tobacco Chesterfield Cigarettes."
- What are the advertisements you used?
- The print media and outdoor advertising remain the priority channels for conveying information about the brand. When advertising in the print media, we have been using non-traditional advertising formats. For example, laying in thick glossy magazines have been developed and implemented in the Russian market print media for the first time.
- Have any promotions?
- In 2001, we organized a competition ChestARTfield in which activities were conducted with the participation of bands and competitions graffiti. A year later, in Moscow and St. Petersburg club concerts are held in the framework of the project "StandArt Chesterfield Cigarettes. One ticket to Underground" with the participation of alternative musicians with distinct personality from around the world. Finally, a good tradition has been holding annual festivals of ethnic music, "What etNo?" in the territory of Moscow's Garden "Hermitage." This musical marathon includes musicians, speakers from different countries, different beliefs and musical directions, but relevant to what are called fashionable word "ethnic". Moreover, as recently as April this year, was held promotional campaign "Music to your taste," during which the consumer invited to listen to songs of the three different areas of music - alternative, rock and ethnic - and choose which of those areas it is closer . By filling in the coupon and fulfilling the conditions specified in the rules of party received the direction of music disc.
- What are the results of recent advertising campaign Chesterfield Cigarettes?
- According to the independent marketing research agency "Business Analysis", in June 2004, the market share Chesterfield Cigarettes brands was 2.1%, exceeding the figures for the same period last year at 0.4%.